articles

Canine Distemper

Also known as CDV, Canine Distemper is a highly contagious viral illness that can be debilitating and even fatal. It not only affects dogs, but can also be seen in certain species of wildlife, including foxes, skunks, and wolves. Puppies and non-immunized dogs are most commonly affected, but pets on immune-suppressing medications may also be vulnerable.

CDV is resistant to the majority of cleaning products, and household bleach is the only known way to eradicate it.
 

What causes CDV?

The CDV virus is mainly transmitted through direct contact with an infected animal via bodily fluids such as saliva from coughs or sneezes which is why inhalation is the most common way it enters a new dog's system. CDV attacks the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.

The virus does not live long once outside the body, so indirect contact is extremely rare.
As with most contagious diseases, animal shelters and kennels are much more likely to be contaminated.
 

Symptoms of CDV

The primary symptoms of CDV include, but are not limited to:
 

  • Coughing

  • Diarrhea

  • Fever

  • Lethargy

  • Nasal discharge

  • Reduced appetite

  • Vomiting

  • Watery or pus-like discharge from the eyes
     

Once the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS), it can cause twitching, seizures, and partial or total paralysis. This causes irreparable damage to a dog’s nervous system, often resulting in death.


Flea Prevention and Care

Saving Your Pet from an Itchy Problem: Fleas

 

Every parent to a furry pet knows how much of a nuisance fleas can be. At best, your pets become itchy and skittish, but at worst they become miserable and lethargic. And just like ticks, fleas can be a vector for disease for you and your pets! Fleas can be partly responsible for roundworms or flatworms as well as for infections including typhus, spotted fever, cat-scratch fever, or more rarely, the plague.

So what can we do? The best first step is prevention, but if that fails, there are ways to spot the beginnings of a flea infestation as well as ways to stop it in its tracks.
 

Preventing an infestation

Stop an infestation before it can start! When winter turns to spring and the weather starts to warm up, don't wait until you notice fleas on your pets or their playmates. You'll have a much happier home if you follow these easy steps:

  • Keep your home clean. Vacuum your house regularly, especially if you have deep pile rugs, and make sure your pet's favorite spaces are regularly cleaned/washed, aired out, and preferably getting plenty of sunlight.

  • Clean yards fend off more than ticks. Keeping a clean yard, including mowed lawns and trimmed foliage, will drastically reduce the potential for fleas in your outdoor areas. Keeping any trash, especially foods, carefully sealed for disposal will help keep away other animals that are likely to harbor fleas

  • Use flea treatments. There are a number of options for flea treatments available based on the type of pet you have and their age, including spot-on treatments, oral chews, and flea collars. Always read the instructions carefully to avoid harming your pet. And of course, always feel free to come in and talk to our staff about what treatments are best for your pet.

  • Consider professional pest control. This option isn't always in a pet owner's budget, and it should always be considered carefully to ensure the best health for your pets, plants, and fish. This can also help prevent other potentially nasty bugs from biting you and your animals, including mosquitoes.
     

Catching an infestation early

Sometimes, despite our best efforts, fleas find their way into our homes and onto us and our animals. Maybe it's because you live in an apartment and they hitch a ride on your neighbor's dog, or perhaps your selected flea treatment didn't last as long as you expected it to or wasn't effective at all.
 

No matter the reason, we've got a few tips on how to identify a flea infestation as early as possible. The earlier you identify it, the earlier you can get it under control!

  • Comb your pet regularly. You can monitor your pet's fur for fleas at multiple stages and check their skin for irritations, bite marks, or other signs of fleas, such as eggs or detritus (blackish-red "flea dirt"). You want to pay close attention to favored locations, such as the back of the head and around the ears, the armpits, or the rump. Remember: fleas will jump on and off of you and your pet, so finding signs of fleas is important, even if you do not find fleas themselves.

  • Fleas love to jump. Fleas are tiny and quick, but they usually appear in groups once the infestation has started. You'll probably be able to feel them jumping on and off of you, especially your feet and lower legs. Your pet's skin will probably also "jump," as they twitch from the movement of fleas (as opposed to being bitten).

  • Keep an eye on your pet's behavior. Are they scratching more than usual? Are they pulling their fur out? Do they have dermatitis? Are they biting at the same area over and over? These are all potential signs that fleas are present. Note: If this behavior is present, but you cannot find any other signs of fleas, take your pet in to be checked by a veterinarian so that they can ensure there are no other health problems.

  • White brings fleas to light. Sometimes it can be hard to determine if the evidence you're finding is of fleas, instead of just plain dirt, especially if your pet spends a lot of time outside. Put down white paper towels when you comb your pet with the flea comb so that you can check the detritus that falls off the pet onto the paper towel or is stuck on the comb to see if it's like dried blood, or if it looks like the earth around your home. Also, if you wear white socks, you'll be able to see the fleas jumping on and off of you.

  • Fleas don't just jump on you. In fact, individually they don't even spend most of their time on you or your pet. Check your pet's favorite places — the dog bed where they love to flop, the spot on the overstuffed chair where your cat loves to sun itself, or even the places in the house where they play the most. Fleas will leave behind similar detritus on your surroundings as they do on your pet.

  • Check all of your pets. If one pet is exhibiting signs of fleas, but your other pet's behavior hasn't changed and they don't scratch themselves much, that doesn't mean the fleas only want to eat one pet, it might just mean that your other pet isn't allergic to flea bites. 

  • Anemia is a concern. Be sure to keep an eye on your pets during regular care and grooming. Lethargy, weakness, and even pale gums can be signs that they're anemic meaning that a high number of fleas are sucking their blood. Be sure to see your veterinarian so your pet can get well!


Vaccinations and Examinations

Regular vaccinations and examinations will help keep your pet healthy and happy. While your veterinarian will be able to advise you of the frequency that your pet should be examined, most recommend either annual or bi-annual visits. Since pets age an average of 7 times faster than humans, they are considered middle-aged by the time they reach 6/7 years old and larger breeds of dogs are often considered to be seniors by the time they reach 8.
 
Typical components of a wellness examination include:

  • Checking the central nervous center

  • Checking and cleaning the ears; treating if required

  • Checking joints and mobility

  • Checking skin and condition of coat

  • Checking urinary and reproductive systems

  • Dental examination

  • Eye examination

  • Listen to the heart

  • Listen to the lungs

  • Observation of alertness and response

  • Palpate the abdomen checking for painful areas and/or growths or tumors

  • Physical examination of the rest of the body for unusual lumps

  • Weight check
     

Other tests that your pet may be given include:

  • Heartworm testing (otherwise known as blood parasite screening)

  • Fecal testing, which allows the veterinarian to check for the presence of internal parasites such as hookworms, roundworms or whipworms.

  • Blood work which screens for infection or disease that may not otherwise be detected through a physical examination. Blood work also gives the veterinarian a comprehensive assessment of your pet's health.


Equine: Castration

Equine castration is the most common surgical procedure performed on horses. Not only does it prevent unwanted breeding, but it can also dramatically improve the behavior and management of your horse.


When should equine castration take place?

Equine castration usually takes place in either the spring or autumn months in order to avoid bacteria-carrying flies in the summer and the mud of winter. Traditionally, castration is carried out in a horse’s yearling year, but there is no reason why the procedure cannot be undertaken at other times. The only requirement is that both testicles must have descended into the scrotum before the castration takes place. If one testicle is undescended, then waiting to castrate is usually the most viable option. However, it is possible to carry out a full castration via laparoscopy to find the retained testicle, although this does require much more surgical intervention and therefore a longer recovery period.

Your equine veterinarian will first obtain the medical history and conduct a thorough examination of your horse before performing castration. This will ensure that he is in good condition, has been dewormed regularly, his vaccinations are up to date, and he has not suffered any recent respiratory infection.


Picking Your Perfect Cat

If you have decided that a cat is the right pet for you, you may think that the decision-making process is complete, but in fact, you are just beginning. Cats, like humans, are all very different and selecting one to suit your needs and lifestyle is vitally important as having a cat requires the commitment of your love, care, and attention for upwards of 10-15 years. Here is our guide to helping you pick your perfect cat.
 

Kitten or adult cat?

Many people instinctively choose kittens over adult cats due largely to their childlike cuteness, curiosity, and playful behavior. However, many do not realize that they need a great deal of supervision, patience, attention, and training. Leave kittens unsupervised in your living room for any period of time and you could be faced with a surprising level of destruction! It is also difficult to know exactly what personality they may develop once they outgrow their kitten traits. She may become a docile companion, or she may continue to be a mischievous and energetic ball of fur.

It is also important to remember that if you are bringing a kitten into a home with very young children, an added amount of supervision will be needed as your child may exhibit the same curious and mischievous behavior as your kitten and may not be as gentle as needed with the kitten.

By comparison, older cats may have outgrown some of that initial cuteness, but the typical behaviors that they exhibit after around the age of one will be a reliable indicator of their regular temperament.
 

Short vs long hair

Responsible pet owners should always make sure that their pets are well-groomed. In the case of long-haired animals, this can end up being a considerable commitment. Long fur needs to be brushed at least once per day in order to prevent matting. Therefore, if you decide on a long-haired cat, you will need to ensure that you have sufficient time to dedicate to daily grooming.

However, not all cats like being groomed and if your cat doesn’t, then you may have to enlist the services of a professional groomer and you will then need to factor in the cost of regular grooming appointments. But if your cat is one that loves to be pampered, then she will come running as soon as she sees her brush!
 

Personality and pure breed vs mixed breed

While purebred cats tend to conform to what is known as a ‘breed standard,’ meaning that you can predict their expected physical and behavioral characteristics based on breed type, each animal is still unique. Many people believe that purchasing a purebred feline will not only guarantee its temperament but will also ensure that it will be in good health, but sadly, this is not the case. Many purebred animals suffer from genetic health problems due to inbreeding.

It is also possible to estimate the physical and behavioral traits of mixed breed cats based on the combination of breeds used to create it. For example, combining two short-haired, highly active breeds will be extremely likely to produce another short-haired highly active cat.

As we have said, whether pure or mixed breed, each cat is unique and will require handling to suit their personality. Some are sedentary, some are active and some love to be stroked and handled while others will only come to you for petting when it suits them. If you are looking for a companion cat, then you would ideally be looking for a sedentary and tactile cat, whereas if you are looking for a cat to play with children, then you should aim for a more active breed.


Avian Vet Care

As far as pet categorizing goes, birds may be slightly more exotic than other pets, but will still make wonderful companions for people who are looking for an alternative to a furry friend. However, the physiology of a bird is very different to that of a cat or a dog. For this reason, it is strongly recommended that you find your feathered friend a veterinarian who has the unique training and experience to be able to understand and manage injuries and health problems that may arise in birds.
 

Services included in avian vet care

As you might expect, the types of services that are usually included in avian vet care are very similar to those offered in standard veterinary offices. Some of the most common include:

  • Routine and comprehensive wellness examinations and assessments

  • Blood panels

  • Imaging tests including digital x-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound scans

  • Preventative care

  • Fracture and beak repair

  • Behavioral consultations for undesirable behavior problems such as aggression

  • Diagnosing and treating a wide range of medical conditions, with in-patient care if required

  • Anesthesia/sedation services
     

How to find an experienced avian vet

Locating a veterinarian that specializes in birds may not be as easy as locating a regular vet, but one good resource to consider is the Association of Avian Veterinarians, who maintain a list of vets qualified to help care for pet birds. Additionally, if you know someone who also has pet birds, you could ask them who their vet is and if they would recommend them.


Finding a Reputable Breeder

With thousands of unwanted dogs living in shelters and desperately looking for new homes, we highly recommend that you consider adopting one of these puppies or adult dogs. You will be able to find details of your local shelters and rescue centers online. However, if your heart is set on a purebred puppy then the very first thing you should do is find a reputable breeder.

Unfortunately, there are many people out there who view breeding purely as a source of income and have very little concern for either the current or future welfare of their puppies. However, by asking the right questions and making some careful observations, it is possible to distinguish between them and knowledgeable and professional breeders. Here is our guide to helping you find a reputable breeder for your future pet.


Canine Parvovirus

Canine Parvovirus, also known as CPV, is a highly contagious viral infection that can be debilitating and sometimes fatal. It has two main forms: the more common intestinal variety and the less common cardiac variety. Puppies aged between 6 weeks and 6 months old are most commonly affected, but early vaccinations can significantly reduce the risk of contracting CPV.

CPV is resistant to the majority of cleaning products with household bleach being the only known way to eradicate the virus.

What causes CPV?

CPV is generally transmitted through direct contact with an infected animal, either through inhalation or direct touch. However, CPV can also be transmitted indirectly through contact with the stools of an infected dog which can contain a heavy concentration of the virus. The virus can also live in the ground for up to a year where it can be brought into contact with a dog by way of shoes.

Certain breeds of dogs are more susceptible to CPV. These breeds include Alaskan Sled Dogs, Dobermans Pinschers, English Springer Spaniels, German Shepherds, Labrador Retrievers, Pitbulls, and Rottweilers. Dogs that take immunosuppressant medication or have not had adequate vaccinations are also more likely to contract CPV.

As with most contagious diseases, animal shelters and kennels are much more likely to be contaminated.
 

Symptoms of CPV

The intestinal variety of CPV affects an animals’ ability to absorb nutrients from their food. This means that an infected dog will rapidly become dehydrated and weak.
The primary symptoms of intestinal CPV include but are not limited to:
 

  • Anorexia / severe weight loss

  • Bloody diarrhea

  • Coughing

  • Fever

  • Lethargy

  • Pain, particularly if the abdomen is touched

  • Rapid heartbeat

  • Vomiting

  • Wet tissue of eyes and mouth becomes red and inflamed
     

In rare cases of CPV, a dog may exhibit symptoms consistent with hypothermia rather than a high fever. Cardiac CPV is extremely rare and usually only seen in very young puppies where it attacks their heart muscles. Cardiac CPV almost always results in death.


Feline Distemper

Feline Distemper, also known as Feline Panleukopenia and FPV, is a highly contagious viral disease that can be debilitating and even fatal. Kittens between 2 and 6 months of age are the most vulnerable to the disease, followed by pregnant and immune-compromised cats. Surviving FPV comes with immunity to any further infections by the virus.

What causes FPV?

The FPV virus is mainly transmitted through direct contact with the blood, feces or urine of an infected cat, but can also be spread by fleas that have been feeding on a contaminated cat. Humans can inadvertently pass FPV after handling the equipment used by contaminated cats if they do not follow proper handwashing protocols. The virus can live on surfaces for up to a year and is resistant to the majority of cleaning products with the exception of household bleach.

FPV attacks the blood cells of an infected cat, particularly those in the bone marrow and intestinal tract. If the infected cat is pregnant, the virus will also attack the stem cells of the unborn kitten. FPV makes your pet more vulnerable to other viral and bacterial diseases as well.
 

Symptoms of FPV

The primary symptoms of FPV include but are not limited to:
 

  • Anemia

  • Dehydration

  • Depression

  • Diarrhea (may be blood-stained)

  • High temperature

  • Loss of appetite

  • Rough coat

  • Vomiting
     

Other symptoms include lack of coordination, hiding away from owners, tucking feet away, or resting the chin on the floor for prolonged periods.


Dental Hygiene and Oral Care

Don't ignore your pet's bad breath! Lack of proper dental hygiene is often the cause of stinky breath, but it may also indicate other, more serious issues with your pet's health. However, we do understand how easy it is to miss as most of the problems that stem from poor hygiene occur where you can't see them - below your pet's gum line.

The first line of defense is always home care. And while some animals, such as dogs, may tolerate their owners handling their mouths and brushing their teeth, most, especially cats, will struggle or act out. This can make oral care difficult at best, and at worst, ineffective.

The best way to ensure your pet's oral health is to have regular cleanings at our office. Our veterinarian will be able to discuss with you how often you ought to come in as well as a home hygiene regimen. This will help to prevent dental issues from progressing to larger (and potentially deadly) internal issues, such as dysfunction or disease in the heart, kidneys, liver, or lungs.

In the wild, hiding pain, illness, or other weaknesses are survival instincts. Many times, your pet will have the same instincts, even in the safety and comfort of your loving home, which is why keeping an eye on your pet's eating habits and behaviors is so important. However, recognizing the difference between normal changes in mood and red flags can be difficult sometimes.

What you interpret as a persistent grumpiness may actually be a sign that your pet is in pain. New irritability, shying away from being touched (especially on the face and around the mouth or throat), sluggishness, loss of appetite or difficulty eating, and lethargy are all behavioral signs which may indicate illness.

However, if you note any of the following physical changes, contact your vet immediately:

  • Red and swollen gums

  • Bleeding gums, especially when eating or when having teeth brushed

  • Swelling around the mouth

  • Oral abscesses, often appearing as swelling in the face

  • Abnormal chewing

  • Loose or missing teeth

  • Discolored teeth

  • Crusted build up at the edge of the gums

  • Persistent bad or fetid breath

  • Excessive drooling

  • Weight loss
     

Preventing oral infections and gum disease will help your pet live a longer, healthier life. And remember, caring for your pet with regular cleanings now will save you money later!


admin none 8:00am - 5:30pm 8:00am - 5:30pm 8:00am - 5:30pm 8:00am - 5:30pm 8:00am - 5:30pm 8:00am - 12:00pm 4:00pm - 6:00pm veterinarian # # #